英文句子间副词总结

类别:句子大全/人气:551 ℃/2020-11-24

英语形容词副词的语法总结

形容词和副词

形容词

一.形容词的定义: 形容词表示人或事物的性质, 特征或状态, 修饰名词或不定代词

二.形容词在句中的作用:

作定语/作表语/作补语/作主语或宾语: the+adj表示某一类人或事物/作状语

三.关于形容词的作用要注意的问题:

1.有些形容词只能作表语和补语, 不能象普通形容词那样作前置定语, 这样的形容词称为表语形容词, 如: alive, alone, asleep, alike, afraid, awake, ashamed, able, sure, ill, worth等词; 表语形容词作定语时需后置

2.有些形容词只能作定语, 不能作表语, 这样的形容词称为定语形容词, 如: golden, wooden, silken, live(活的), elder(年长的), former前任的, latter后者, front前面的, back后面的, outer外部的

四.形容词在句中的位置:

1.单个形容词作定语时, 一般放在被修饰的名词之前; 两个或两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时, 同种类形容词的排列顺序一般应考虑以下两种情况:

①.和被修饰的名词关系比较密切的形容词位置更靠近名词

a. It is a touching English film.

②.音节少的形容词在前, 音节多的形容词在后

a. I have a small but beautiful room.

不同种类的词同时出现在名词前作定语时, 按以下顺序进行排列:

数 词 性 状 形 容 词

冠词前的形容词 冠词,物主代词,指示代词,不定代词,所有格 序数词 基数词 性质

状态 数量

大小

长短

形状 新旧

温度

长幼 颜色 国籍 材料

来源

用途

all, both, such等 the, a,

this, that

another,

your等 first,

second,

next等 one, five等 kind,

good,

sick等 large,

long,

round等 old

cool等 red,

blue等 Chinese

English

等 iron,

stone等

2.单个形容词作定语时, 在下列情况之下, 形容词应放在被修饰的词之后

①.形容词修饰不定代词something, nothing, anything等时应后置

a. Is there anything important in the article?

b. There is something difficult in the lesson.

c. There is nothing wrong in your homework.

②.形容词修饰表示度量的名词应后置

a. The building is seventeen storeys high.

b. He is ten years old.

c. The street is five hundred meters long.

③.用and / or连接的两个形容词通常放在被修饰的名词之后, 起强调修饰语的作用

a. We will turn our motherland into a country, strong and modern.

b. Every nation, big or small, has its rights.

c. Power stations, large and small, have been set up all over the country.

④.有些过去分词形容词作定语时应后置, 如: given, left, won, missed等

a. None of the answers given (被给的答案) were correct.

⑤.表语形容词作定语时需后置, 如: alive, present, possible等

a. He is the greatest writer alive.

b. He was the only person awake at the moment.

3.形容词短语作定语时, 需要后置

a. He is a worker worthy of praise.

b. This is a problem difficult to solve.

c. She is always ready to help others.

五.特殊的形容词: 有些以-ly结尾的词是形容词, 而不是副词, 这样的词如: friendly友好的, lovely可爱的, weekly每周的, orderly有秩序的, brotherly兄弟般的, lively活泼的, lonely孤独的, likely可能的, deadly致命的

副 词

一.副词的种类:

1.一般副词主要分为以下几种:

①.时间副词, 如: often, always, early, now

②.地点副词, 如: here, there, above, outside

③.方式副词, 如: hard, well, badly, fast, slowly

④.程度副词, 如: very, quite, much, still, almost

2.疑问副词(放在特殊疑问句的句首), 如: how, when, where, why

3.关系副词(放在定语从句句首), 如: when, where, why

4.连接副词(放在名词从句句首), 如: how, when, where, why, whether

二.副词在句中的作用: 副词修饰动词, 形容词, 名词, 副词或全句, 在句中的作用如下

1.作状语:

a. You should always review your lessons.

b. The visitors are warmly weed by the students.

c. Certainly we should try out best to improve our work.

2.作表语:

a. He is abroad.

b. The class is over.

c. The football match is on.

3.作定语: 副词作定语时置于被修饰词之后

a. This is her first day up.

b. Therades here give us a lot of help.

4.作补语(包括宾语补足语和主语补足语):

a. I found all the lights on when I got home last night.

三.副词在句中的位置:

1.时间副词和地点副词的位置:

①.表示确定时间的副词和表示地点的副词一般放在句尾. 若句中同时有地点副词和时间副词, 地点副词通常在前, 时间副词在后

a. They went to the Summer Palace yesterday.

b. We often goes there.

c. I will go there tomorrow.

②.表示不确定时间的副词(如: always, usually, often, never, ever, seldom, sometimes, rarely, generally, frequently)的位置: 句子谓语是be时, 位于其后; 句子谓语是单个完全动词时, 位于其前; 句子谓语由不完全动词与完全动词一起组成时, 位于第一个不完全动词之后.

a. She always helps her mother with the housework.

b. The old man seldom goes out.

c. He is always the first toe to class.

d. They have already done their homework.

2.程度副词除enough之外, 一般放在被修饰词之前

a. The student is very careful with his work.

b. He swims quite well.

c. The boy is old enough to go to school.

3.方式副词的位置:

①.修饰不及物动词的方式副词要放在被修饰词之后

a. His sister sings well.

b. The baby is sleeping soundly.

②.修饰及物动词的方式副词可放在被修饰词之前或宾语之后; 如果宾语较长, 也可放在动词和宾语之间

a. He speaks French fluently.

b. All this morning Liu Ying has been writing carefully some English letters to her teachers.

4.及物动词和副词小品词(down, on, off, in, out, up)组成的动词词组有名词作宾语时, 该名词可放在副词之后或副词之前; 若有代词作宾语时, 则代词一定放在副词之前

a. He cut down the tree. =He cut the tree down.

b. He cut it down.

5.修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后

a. The villagers there are busy getting in wheat.

6.修饰全句的副词通常放在句首

a. Truly he is an honest man.

b. Still, in spite of what you say, I don’t think it is true.

7.作状语时,各类副词的排列顺序一般为: 方式副词, 地点副词, 时间副词

a. He behaved well here yesterday.

形容词和副词的比较等级

一.原级:

1.原级的形式: 即原形

2.原级的用法:

①.表示被比较双方在某一方面相等或相同时, 用as + adj / adv + as结构, 表示“…和…一样”

a. Xiao Li is as tall as his sister.

b. It is as cold today as it was yesterday.

c. There are as many seats in this hall as in that hall.

②.表示被比较双方在某一方面不相等或不同时, 用not as / so + adj / adv + as, 表示“…和…不一样”

a. Xiao Li is not as / so tall as his brother.

b. It is not so / as cold today as yesterday.

c. There are not so / as many seats in this hall as in that hall.

二.比较级和最高级:

1.比较级和最高级的形式:

①.规则变化:

a.在单音节形容词后及少数以-er, -ow, -ble, -ple结尾的双音节形容词和少数副词原级后, 加-er, -est或 -r, -st, 如: strong, young, clever, able, simple, narrow, hard, fast, slow等

b.在以 -e结尾的单音节形容词和少数副词原级后, 加-r, -st, 如: brave, wide等

c.形容词以发短元音的元音字母+辅音字母结尾时, 双写辅音字母, 再加-er, -est,如: big, hot, thin等

d.辅音字母+y结尾的单音节及双音节形容词和少数副词(由形容词+ly构成的副词除外), 要将y变为i, 再加-er, -est, 如: easy, happy, early等

e.在双音节和多音节形容词和大多数副词原级前可以加more, most表示比较级和最高级, 如: useful, childish, important, happily, clearly, quickly等

f.有少数单音节形容词加more / most构成比较级和最高级, 如: fond, tired, pleased, glad, often, fit等

g.下列形容词和副词的比较级和最高级可用两种方法构成: cruel, strict, friendly, often, fit

②.不规则变化的形容词如: good / well, many / much, bad / badly, little, far

2.比较级的用法: 两方进行比较时, 多用than

a. It is colder today than it was yesterday.

b. His handwriting is more beautiful than yours.

c. He did his homework more carefully than you did yours.

3.最高级的用法: 三方或三方以上进行比较时, 用最高级, 最高级前多用the, 基本形式为: the + adj / adv的最高级 + (名词) + 表示范围的短语或从句

a. He is the eldest among the sisters.

b. Shanghai is the biggest centre of industry in China.

c. Beijing is one of the most beautiful cities in China.

4.比较等级的特殊用法:

①.有些词的比较级和最高级有两种不同形式, 意义上也有所不同, 如: older / oldest(比较老/最老的), elder / eldest (年龄比较大的/最大的); farther / farthest用于本义, 表示“比较远的/最远的”, 而further / furthest常用于引申意义, 表示“更进一步的,更深一层的/最深层的”

a. He is the oldestrade in our office.

b. He is the eldest son in the family.

c. He went abroad for further studies.

②.表示“比…多(大)几倍”时, 用“倍数+ as…as” 结构或“倍数+比较级+than…”表示

a. This book costs twice as much as that one.

b. The university is three times as big as it was in 1980. =The university is three times bigger than it was in 1980.

③.可用much, far, still, even等修饰比较级, 表示 “更…”, “…得多”之意

a. Her handwriting is much better than mine.

b. This street is far wider and longer than any other street in Beijing.

④.可用“名词词组或数词词组+比较级”的结构来表示“比…相差多少”, 如: a head taller, ten minutes later, two meters longer, a few steps further

⑤.比较级+ and +比较级表示“越来越…”的意思

a. Summer ising. It is getting hotter and hotter.

⑥. “the +比较级+主语+谓语+其他, the +比较级+主语+谓语+其他” 表示 “越… , 就越…”

a. The harder you study, the more knowledge you will get.

b. The more you work for other people, the happier you will feel.

⑦.more…than…有时表示“与其说…, 倒不如说…”

a.. He is more diligent than wise.与其说他聪明,不如说他勤奋

b. He is more a friend than a teacher.与其说他是一位老师,不如说更像一位朋友

⑧.“no+比较级+than…”和“not +比较级+than…”所表示的意思不相同, 前者表示“和…一样不…”(即两者都不…), 后者表示“不比…更… ”(仅否定前者, 即表示前者不如后者)

a. His English is no better than mine. (两人的英语都不好)

b. His English is not better than mine. 他的英语不如我的英语好(仅否定 “他的英语”)

c. He is no taller than I.他和我一样不高./ He is not taller than I.他不如我高.

⑨.有时用比较级表示最高级的意思, 如:

a. It can’t be safer.再安全不过了.

b. She can’t be more beautiful. 她简直美极了

c. He works harder than the other students in his class.

d. He works harder than any other student in his class.

⑩. “the +序数词+最高级” 表示“第几”之意

a. China is the third largest country in the world.

b. The Yellow River is the second longest river in China.

3、形容词和副词的比较等级

(1)原级的构成和用法。

构成:形容词、副词的原级即本身。

用法:表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时,用“as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示双方不相等时,用“not so(as) + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示一方是另一方的若干倍时,用“倍数 + as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构。如:

Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu.

This building looks not so (as)high as that one.

Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you .

This room is three times as large as that one.

(2)比较级和最高级的构成。

掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则,熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。

(3)比较级的用法。

①对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如:

This picture is more beautiful than that one.

②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。如:

This room is less beautiful than that one.

③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如even、a lot、a bit、a little、still、much、far、yet、by fay等修饰。如:

He works even harder than before.

注意:英语的比较级前如无even、still或yet等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“…一些”或不译出,一般不可有“更”。如:

She is better than she was yesterday

Pleasee earlier tomorrow.

另注意:by far通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。如:

He is taller by far than his brother.

He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语),the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语)”的结构(意为“越……越……”)。如:

The harder he works, the happier he feels.

⑤不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。如:

The weather is getting colder and colder.

The girl bes more and more beautiful.

⑥某些以-ior结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。这些词有inferior(劣等的,次的)、superior(较好的,优于……)、junior(资历较浅的)、senior(资格较老的)、prior(在……之前)等。

He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry.

⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that指物,one既可指人又可指物。that可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而one只能代替可数名词。

The book on the table is more interesting than that(或the one)on the desk.

A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood.

⑧倍数表达法。(A)A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)。The new bui9lding is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍)。(B)A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。(C)A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.

(4)最高级的用法。

①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。如:

Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.

He works(the)hardest in his class.

②最高级可被序数词以及much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、nothing like等词语所修饰。如:

This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest.

How much did the secon most expensive hat cost?

③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如excellent、extreme、perfect等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如:

He is the tallest(boy)in his class.

⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如:

Of all the boys he came(the)earliest.

(5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。

①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加冠词。

②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比较,表示“非常”。如:

He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very)

The film is most interesting.(most=very)

③表示两者间“较……的一个”比较级前加the。如:

who is the older of the tow boys?

④在“the + 比较级…,the + 比较级…”结构中。

⑤在same前一般要加the。

⑥有些形容词前加the 成为名词。如the poor、the rich 等。

(6)由as / so组成的形容词或副词短语。

①?as much as + 不可数名词数量。

Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons.

She could earn as much as ten dollars a week.

②as many as + 可数名词数量 多达

I have as a many as sixteen referrence books.

③as early as早在

As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island.

④as far as远到;就……而知(论)

We might go as far as (走到)the church and back.

As far as I know(就我所知),he has been there before.

⑤may (might, could)as well不妨、不如

Then you might as well stay with us here.

⑥as … as can be到了最……的程度,极其

They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。

⑦as … as one can

He began to run, as fast as he could.

⑧as … as possible

Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible.

(7)几组重要的词语辨析。

①very 和much的区别。(A)可分等级的形容词和副词前使用very不用much。(B)表示状态的过去分词前用very。a very frightened boy, a very tired child, a veryplicated problem, 一般的情况下,以-ing、-ed结尾的分词多用much、very much / greatly等修饰。如:We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack’s attitude。(C)已转化为形容词的现在分词前用very。如:very interesting / worrying / exicting。(D)too前用much或far,不用very。You are much / far / a lot too nice.另外,在too many / much, too few / little前用far。 There’s far too little opportunity for adventue these days.We’ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups.(E)关于原级形容词要记住下列固定的修饰结构:(a)修饰绝对意义的形容词,一般不用very,而用quitepletely、well、entirely。如:quite wrong(mistaken, sure)pletely dead、quite impossible、quite perfect等。(b)修饰以a-开头的形容词,多有特殊的修饰词:quite alone, very much alone, wide awake, fast asleep, very much afraid。(c)修饰一些特殊形容词的修饰语有:be well worth, much the same, freezing cold, quite different, terribly cold / frightening。

②so … that … 与such … that … 的区别。

so + 形容词 / 副词 + that …

so + 形容词 + a(n)+ 单数可数名词 + that …

so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that …

such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that …

such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that …

such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that …

注意:下列结构中只能用so不可用such,当名词前有many、much、little、few等表示“多、少”的词修饰时,如 so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples等。但当little表示“小”时用such。如:These are such little boys that they can’t dress themselves.下列so的用法是错误的:so a diffcult problem,so difficult problems, so hot weather。

③其他几组词的辨析。(A)ago、before:ago表示以现在为起点的“以前”;before指以过去或将来的某时刻为起点的“以前”。泛指“以前”用before而不用ago。(B)already、yet、still:already表示某事已经发生;yet表示期待某事发生;still表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句。

(C)too、also、either:too和also用于肯定句,too多用于口语,also多用于书面语,either用于否定句。(D) good、well:与good不同的是,well作形容词,只能在系动词后作表语,表示“身体状况好”,也作副词修饰动词。(E)quick、 fast:作形容词皆表“快”。fast多指运动的物体,含持续的意思。quick多指一次动作的敏捷、突然,而且持续的时间较短。(F)real、 true:形容词表“真的”。real强调真实存在的而不是幻想的,在句中常作定语;true指与事实标准和实际情况相符合,在句中作表语或定语。(G) hard、difficult:均表“困难”,但hard通常指体力上困难;difficult则指智力或技能上的困难,困难程度大于hard。它们都可作定语和表语。

二、精典名题导解

选择填空

1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.(NMET 2001)

A.an art much as B.much an art as

C.as an art much as D.as much an art as

解析:答案为D。本题可从考查形容词的同级比较点入手。在同级比较as…as句式中,如果as后面的形容词作定语且其所修饰的名词前有不定冠词时,该冠词须置于形容词之后,即形成“as + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + as”结构。这道题在名词专题中也有解析,不同的是观察视角不同,应注意培养发散思维。

2. It is always difficult being in a foreign country, __________if you don’t speak the language.(NMET 2000)

A.extremely B.naturally C.basically D.especially

解析:答案为D。本题考查副词的词义辨析。注意掌握词语的准确含义,结合语境进行分析。A项意为“极端地”;B项意为“自然地”;C项“基本上”;D项“尤其,特别地”。根据句意“如果你不会讲(它的)语言,在国外你就总会困难重重”可知答案。

3. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ______known for his plays.(NMET 1998)

A.the best B.more C.better D.the most

解析:答案为C。本题考查副词的比较级和最高级。要把握句式之间的联系,抓住句子的隐藏信息,结合语境进行分析。根据句意,句中but后应有一词组be well known for…。同时,应注意到前后两个分句把professor White的短篇小说和戏剧进行了对比,故应用well的比较级。

英语句子中的副词和形容词

这个啊,形容词修饰名词,连系动词+形容词租帆作表语.

副词哈,也可以做表语,在表地点与介词同形.可以修饰动词,形容词,副词和介词短语

不太精通,可能有错的.LZ可以液碰去买红魔英语,初中语法,讲的闹型谈很好的

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